I want information on:

Information for:


Under leaden skies - where heavy metal clouds the stars

In a paper shortly to be published in the Oxford University Press journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, a team of astronomers from the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland report the discovery of two unusual stars with extremely high concentrations of lead in their atmospheres.

Naslim Neelamkodan, Simon Jeffery, Natalie Behara and Alan Hibbert are studying the surfaces of small hot stars, known as helium-rich subdwarfs. They are already known to be peculiar because they contain much less hydrogen and much more helium than normal.

Three years ago they discovered one with a very high surface concentration of zirconium - better known for making false diamonds. Now studying a group of similar stars, they have discovered two which have surfaces containing ten thousand (10,000) times more lead than is present on the surface of the Sun.

The discoveries were made in two stars, known as HE 2359-2844, 800 light years distant in the direction of the constellation of Sculptor and HE 1256-2738, located 1000 light years away in the constellation of Hydra. The astronomers studied the stars using observations from the archives of the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile.The light signatures, or spectra, of both stars showed a few features which did not match any atoms expected to be present. After some detective work, the team realised that the features were due to lead.

leaden star smallArtist's impression of the surface of HE2359-2844. The very high temperature (38000 degrees Celsius) makes the surface bluish in colour. An alien observer close to the star might be able to see the lead- and zirconium-rich cloud layers using specially chosen filters. Images created using POV-Ray by C. S. Jeffery. Click for a larger imageWith atomic number 82, lead is one of the heaviest naturally occurring elements; in the Sun there is less than one lead atom for every ten billion hydrogen atoms. At around 38000 degrees Celsius, the surfaces of HE 2359-2844 and HE 1256-2738 are so hot that three electrons are removed from every lead atom. The resulting ions produce distinctive lines in the star's spectrum, from which the concentration of lead in the atmosphere can be measured. Using the same technique, HE 2359-2844 was also found to show ten thousand times more yttrium and zirconium than on the Sun. Along with the zirconium star, LS IV-14 116, these stars now form a new group of 'heavy metal subdwarfs'.

The team believes that these heavy-metal stars are a crucial link between bright red giants, stars thirty or forty times the size of the Sun, and faint blue subdwarfs, stars one fifth the size, but seven times hotter and seventy times brighter than the Sun. A few red giants lose their thick hydrogen skin and shrink to become hot subdwarfs, or nearly-naked helium stars. As they shrink, conditions become favourable for the pressure of light from the helium stars to act on individual atoms to sort the elements into separate layers, where they are concentrated by a factor of ten thousand or more.

Like water vapour in the earth's atmosphere, or layers of different density in a rainbow cocktail drink, a layer of heavy metal at just the right height and concentration can form clouds that become detectable from Earth. The team suggests that the new discoveries are rare examples of these layers coming into view and estimates that the lead layer could be about 100 km thick and weigh some 100 billion tonnes.

Naslim and co-workers will continue to search for evidence of other heavy metals forming cloud layers in these rare stars, and to look for more information about how light pressure sorts the chemistry of helium-rich subdwarfs over time. For such rare stars, it is still not certain how they form, and what they will eventually become.






Science contacts

Prof Simon Jeffery
Research Astronomer
Armagh Observatory
Adjunct Professor
Trinity College Dublin
Tel: +44 (0)28 3751 2958
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
skype: dr.simon.jeffery

Dr Naslim Neelamkodan
Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica
11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University,
No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C
Tel: +886 (0) 912374481
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Media contact

Dr Robert Massey
Royal Astronomical Society
Tel: +44 (0)20 7734 3307
Mob: +44 (0)794 124 8035
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Further information

Naslim Neelamkodan completed her PhD at the Armagh Observatory in 2012 and now works at the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academica Sinica, Taiwan. Natalie Behara completed her PhD at the Armagh Observatory in 2006 and is currently a visiting astronomer at the University of Brussels. Alan Hibbert is Emeritus Professor of Applied Mathematics at Queens University Belfast, and Deputy Chairman of the Armagh Observatory and Planetarium Management Committee. Simon Jeffery is a senior research astronomer at the Armagh Observatory, and adjunct Professor of Physics at Trinity College Dublin.

The new work appears in the paper "Discovery of extremely lead-rich subdwarfs: does heavy metal signal the formation of subdwarf B stars?", Naslim Neelamkodan, C. Simon Jeffery, Alan Hibbert, and Natalie T. Behara , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, in press. After the embargo expires, the paper will be available for download at


Image and caption

An image can be downloaded from

Caption: Artist's impression of the surface of HE2359-2844. The very high temperature (38000 degrees Celsius) makes the surface bluish in colour. Lead- and zirconium-rich cloud layers covering parts or all of the stars might be visible using specially chosen filters with ground-based telescopes. Images created using POV-Ray by C. S. Jeffery.


Notes for editors

The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS,, founded in 1820, encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. The RAS organizes scientific meetings, publishes international research and review journals, recognizes outstanding achievements by the award of medals and prizes, maintains an extensive library, supports education through grants and outreach activities and represents UK astronomy nationally and internationally. Its more than 3500 members (Fellows), a third based overseas, include scientific researchers in universities, observatories and laboratories as well as historians of astronomy and others.

Follow the RAS on Twitter via @royalastrosoc