A RAS Specialist Discussion Meeting organised by *Luke Barnard, Chris Scott and Mat Owens (Reading)
Most of our knowledge about the heliospheric environment is based on the interpretation of observations recorded by spacecraft and terrestrial instrumentation operating since the advent of the space-age. However, it is well documented that extreme space weather events still occurred before the space age and at more moderate levels of solar activity (e.g. the Carrington event), but our understanding of these events is limited by the availability of observations. There is value in studying such events, as they may be more representative of the future space environment than those studied in the space age. We encourage submissions on any investigations that gain historic insight into the space environment and space weather phenomena.