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Reinvigorated Hubble reveals most distant galaxies yet (RAS PN 09/61)

Last Updated on Tuesday, 23 March 2010 15:51
Published on Monday, 22 March 2010 19:51

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Using the recently updated Hubble Space Telescope (HST) two teams of UK astronomers have identified galaxies which are likely to be the most distant yet seen. The UK teams, one led by Andrew Bunker and Stephen Wilkins at the University of Oxford and the other by Ross McLure and Jim Dunlop at the University of Edinburgh, share their results in forthcoming papers in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Image shows a portion of the Hubble Deep Field, with a potentially very distant galaxy marked by the cross-hairs. (Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI)

REINVIGORATED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE REVEALS MOST DISTANT GALAXIES YET
ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY PRESS RELEASE
Ref: RAS PN 09/61 (EMBARGOED)
Date: 8th December 2009
Embargoed until 1400 GMT, 8th December 2009

Issued by
Dr Robert Massey
Press and Policy Officer
Royal Astronomical Society
Mob: +44 (0)794 124 8035
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REINVIGORATED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE REVEALS MOST DISTANT GALAXIES YET (RAS PN 09/61) (EMBARGOED)

Using the recently updated Hubble Space Telescope (HST) two teams of UK astronomers have identified galaxies which are likely to be the most distant yet seen. The UK teams, one led by Andrew Bunker and Stephen Wilkins at the University of Oxford and the other by Ross McLure and Jim Dunlop at the University of Edinburgh, analysed infrared images from the new Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument on HST, installed during the most recent Space Shuttle servicing mission in May 2009. Infrared light is light invisible to the human eye, with wavelengths about twice as long as visible light - beyond the red.

"The expansion of the Universe causes the light from very distant galaxies to appear redder, so having a new camera on Hubble which is very sensitive in the infrared means we can identify galaxies at much greater distances than was previously possible" explained Stephen Wilkins, a postdoctoral researcher in astrophysics at Oxford University.

In a series of papers, to appear in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, the UK teams present their analysis of the most sensitive images of the Universe yet taken in the infrared.

"The unique infrared sensitivity of Wide Field Camera 3 means that these are the best images yet for providing detailed information about the first galaxies as they formed in the early Universe", explained Dr Ross McLure from the Institute for Astronomy in Edinburgh.

The new images from Hubble include the region of sky known as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, which Bunker and colleagues were the first to analyse 5 years ago using visible light images taken with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).

"Hubble has now revisited the Ultra Deep Field which we first studied 5 years ago, taking infrared images which are more sensitive than anything obtained before. We can now look even further back in time, identifying galaxies when the Universe was only 5 percent of its current age - within 1 billion years of the Big Bang" said Dr Daniel Stark, a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge who was involved in the work of both UK teams.

As well as identifying potentially the most distant objects yet, these new HST observations present an intriguing puzzle. "We know the gas between galaxies in the Universe was ionised (where electrons are removed from their host atomic nuclei) early in the history of the cosmos, but the total light from these new galaxies may not be sufficient to achieve this." said Andrew Bunker, a researcher at the University of Oxford.

The researchers are now looking forward to seeing these intriguing objects more clearly in the years ahead. "These new observations from HST are likely to be the most sensitive images Hubble will ever take, but the very distant galaxies we have now discovered will be studied in detail by Hubble's successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which will be launched in 2014", commented Professor Jim Dunlop at the University of Edinburgh.

CONTACTS

Dr Andrew Bunker
Oxford Astrophysics
Department of Physics
Denys Wilkinson Building
Keble Road
Oxford, OX1 3RH
Tel: +44 (0)1865 273303
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Mr Stephen Wilkins
Oxford Astrophysics
Department of Physics
Denys Wilkinson Building
Keble Road
Oxford, OX1 3RH
Tel: +44 (0)1865 273303
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Prof Jim Dunlop
Institute for Astronomy
University of Edinburgh
Royal Observatory
Blackford Hill
Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ
Tel: +44 (0)131 668 8100
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Dr Daniel Stark
Institute of Astronomy
University of Cambridge
Madingley Road
Cambridge CB3 0HA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1223 337548
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Prof Richard Ellis FRS CBE   
Caltech Astronomy     
249-17 Astronomy         
Caltech
Pasadena        
CA 91125 USA               
Tel:  +1 626 395 4970
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IMAGES AND CAPTIONS

Images of a distant galaxy in the Hubble Deep Field, the Hubble Space Telescope and the installation of the Wide Field Camera 3 can be found at http://www.physics.ox.ac.uk/users/bunker/HubblePressRelease/

FURTHER INFORMATION

The results are included in three separate papers in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

R.J. McLure, J.S. Dunlop, M. Cirasuolo, A.M. Koekemoer, E. Sabbi, D.P. Stark, T.A. Targett, R.S. Ellis, Accepted in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomy Society, http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.2437

Stephen M. Wilkins, Andrew J. Bunker, Richard S. Ellis, Daniel Stark, Elizabeth R. Stanway, Kuenley Chiu, Silvio Lorenzoni, Matt J. Jarvis, Accepted in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomy Society, http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.1098

Bunker, Andrew; Wilkins, Stephen; Ellis, Richard; Stark, Daniel; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Chiu, Kuenley; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt; Hickey, Samantha, Submitted to the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomy Society, http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.2255

NOTES FOR EDITORS

The Royal Astronomical Society
http://www.ras.org.uk

The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS), founded in 1820, encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. The RAS organizes scientific meetings, publishes international research and review journals, recognizes outstanding achievements by the award of medals and prizes, maintains an extensive library, supports education through grants and outreach activities and represents UK astronomy nationally and internationally. Its more than 3000 members (Fellows), a third based overseas, include scientific researchers in universities, observatories and laboratories as well as historians of astronomy and others.