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PN04/14 (NAM 11): Hunt for extrasolar Earth-like planets intensifies

Last Updated on Friday, 16 April 2010 12:50
Published on Wednesday, 02 March 2005 00:00

An international group of astronomers led by Dr. Jean-Philippe Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris) and Dr. Martin Dominik (University of St Andrews) are about to continue their hunt for extrasolar planets with an enhanced world-wide telescope network in May this year. They are hoping to secure the firm evidence for the existence of Earth-mass planets orbiting stars other than the Sun, which has so far eluded astronomers. Dr Dominik will describe the project, known as PLANET (Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork), at the Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting at the Open University on Thursday 1 April.

Recent scientific research shows that the existence of life on other worlds is a realistic scenario. By measuring the periodic variation of the radial velocity of stars induced by an orbiting planet, astronomers have so far detected over 100 planets but all of them are large, similar to Jupiter and Saturn in our solar system, and environmental conditions suitable for life do not exist on such gas giant planets.

The only technique currently capable of detecting planets similar to Earth makes use of the phenomenon called "galactic microlensing". In a microlensing event, a star temporarily appears brighter than it really is because another astronomical body is passing between it and observers on Earth; the gravitational field of the intervening object affects the starlight in a way similar to a lens.

If the intervening object is a star, it causes a characteristic signal that lasts about a month. Any planets orbiting this star can produce significant deviations in the signal, lasting days for giant planets down to hours for Earth-mass planets. The probability of this happening is between 1.5% and 20% depending on the mass of the planet.

The PLANET campaign performs nearly-continuous round-the-clock high-precision monitoring of ongoing microlensing events, sampling the lightcurve at intervals that may be as little as few minutes with a world-wide network of telescopes. The backbone of the network is formed by the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla (Chile), the Canopus Observatory 1.0-m telescope (Tasmania, Australia), the Perth 0.6-m telescope (Western Australia), and the Boyden 1.5-m telescope (South Africa), which is supplemented by some other telescopes.

PLANET will share information and some resources with the microlensing campaign performed with RoboNet, a UK robotic telescope network comprised of the Liverpool 2.0-m (Canary Islands, Spain) and the two Faulkes 2.0-m telescopes (Hawaii and Australia).

From the 500-700 microlensing events announced annually by the survey campaigns OGLE and MOA that monitor tens of millions of stars on a daily basis, PLANET focuses on up to 75 events that are selected as most suitable candidates for the detection of planets around the intervening lens star. "If 20% of these stars are surrounded by planets, 10-15 giant planets and 1 or 2 terrestrial planets are expected to reveal their existence over three years of operation", Dr. Dominik said.

While PLANET might detect a second Earth, its typical expected distance would be 20,000 light years - much too far to think of establishing any contact!


Dr. Martin DominikUniversity of St Andrews School of Physics & AstronomyNorth Haugh St Andrews KY16 9SS United Kingdom Phone: (+44)-(0)1334-463066Fax: (+44)-(0)1334-463104e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Dr. Jean-Philippe BeaulieuInstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris 98bis Boulevard d'Arago 75014 Paris France Phone: +33-1-44-328119Fax: +33-1-44-328001e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
NOTES

1. The PLANET Collaboration e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2. Other authors/PLANET members:

University of St Andrews (St Andrews, United Kingdom): Prof. Keith D. Horne, Dr. Stephen R. Kane

Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris (Paris, France): Arnaud Cassan, Dr. Christian Coutures

Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse, France): Dr. Pascal Fouqu'e

TU Wien (Vienna, Austria): Jadzia Donatowicz

Universität Potsdam (Potsdam, Germany): Dijana Dominis, Daniel Kubas, Prof. Joachim Wambsganss

Niels Bohr Institute (Copenhagen, Denmark): Dr. Uffe G. J/orgensen

European Southern Observatory (Santiago de Chile, Chile): Dr. Stephane Brillant

Space Telescope Science Institute (Baltimore, MD, USA): Dr. John A. R. Caldwell, Dr. Kailash C. Sahu

University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN, USA): Prof. David P. Bennett

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA, USA): Dr. Kem H. Cook

University of Washington (Seattle, WA, USA): Chris Laws

University of Canterbury (Christchurch, New Zealand): Dr. Michael D. Albrow, Dr. Karen R. Pollard

Canopus Observatory (Hobart, Australia): Dr. John Greenhill, Dr. Kym Hill, Dr. Robert Watson

Perth Observatory (Bickley, Australia): Dr. Ralph Martin, Dr. Andrew Williams

University of the Free State (Bloemfontein, South Africa): Hannes Calitz, Dr. Matie Hoffman, Prof. Pieter Meintjes

South African Astronomical Observatory (Cape Town, South Africa): Dr. John W. Menzies

3. LINKS:

The PLANET Collaboration http://planet.iap.fr



European Southern Observatory (ESO) http://www.eso.org

The extra-solar planets encyclopedia http://www.obspm.fr/encycl/encycl.html


Date: 23 March 2004

Issued by Jacqueline Mitton and Peter Bond, RAS Press Officers.

National Astronomy Meeting Press Room phones (30 March - 2 April only):
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