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Last Updated on Thursday, 04 March 2010 20:29
Published on Tuesday, 11 January 2005 00:00
A team of UK and Australian astronomers today announced that it has found the missing link that directly relates modern galaxies like our own Milky Way to the Big Bang that created our Universe 14 thousand million years ago. The findings are the result of a 10-year effort to map the distribution in space of 220,000 galaxies by the 2dFGRS (2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey), a consortium of astronomers, using the 3.8-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). This missing link was revealed in the existence of subtle features in the galaxy distribution in the survey. Analysis of these features has also enabled the team to weigh the universe with unprecedented accuracy.

The 2dFGRS has measured in great detail the distribution of galaxies, called the large-scale structure of the Universe. These patterns range in size from 100 million to 1 billion light years. The properties of the large-scale structure are set by physical processes that operated when the universe was very young indeed.

Dr Shaun Cole of the University of Durham, who led the research, explains: "At the moment of birth, the universe contained tiny irregularities, thought to have resulted from "quantum" or subatomic processes. These irregularities have been amplified by gravity ever since and eventually gave rise to the galaxies we see today."

Theorists in the 1960s suggested that the primordial seeds of galaxies should be seen as ripples in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation emitted in the heat left over from the Big Bang, when the Universe was a mere 350,000 years old. Ripples were subsequently seen in 1992 by NASA's COBE satellite, but until now, no firm connection could be demonstrated with galaxy formation. 2dFGRS has found that a pattern seen in these ripples has propagated to the modern Universe and can be detected in galaxies today.

The patterns in the CMB contain prominent spots about one degree across, produced by sound waves propagating in the unimaginably hot plasma of the Big Bang. These features are known as "acoustic peaks" or "baryon wiggles". Theorists had speculated that the sound waves might have also left an imprint in the dominant component of the universe - the exotic "dark matter", which itself drives the formation of galaxies. Physicists and astronomers set about trying to identify this imprint in maps of our own galactic neighbourhood.

After years of painstaking work taking measurements of galaxies at the Anglo-Australian Telescope and modelling their properties with sophisticated mathematical and computational techniques, the 2dFGRS team have identified the imprint of sound waves in the Big Bang. It appears as delicate features in the "power spectrum", the statistic used by astronomers to quantify the patterns seen in maps of the galaxy distribution. These features are consistent with those seen in the microwave background - which means we understand the life history of the gas from which Galaxies formed.

The baryon features contain information about the contents of the universe, in particular about the amount of ordinary matter (known as baryons), the kind of stuff which has condensed into stars and planets and of which we ourselves are made.

Professor Carlos Frenk, Director of the Institute for Computational Cosmology of the University of Durham said: "These baryon features are the genetic fingerprint of our universe. They establish a direct evolutionary link to the Big Bang. Finding them is a milestone in our understanding of how the cosmos was formed."

Professor John Peacock from Edinburgh University, UK team leader of 2dFGRS collaboration said: "I don't think anyone would have expected simple cosmological theories to work so well. We're very lucky to be around to see this picture of the universe established."

The 2dFGRS has shown that baryons are a small component of our universe, making up a mere 18% of the total mass, with the remaining 82% appearing as dark matter. For the first time, the 2dFGRS team have broken the 10 percent accuracy barrier in measuring the total mass of the Universe.

As if this picture weren't strange enough, the 2dFGRS also showed that all the mass in the universe (both luminous and dark) is outweighed 4:1 by an even more exotic component called "vacuum energy" or "dark energy". This has antigravity properties, causing the expansion of the universe to speed up. This conclusion arises when combining 2dFGRS results with data on the microwave background radiation, which is left over from the time when the baryon features were created. The origin and identity of the dark energy remains one of the deepest mysteries of modern science.

Our knowledge of the microwave background improved hugely in 2003 with data from NASA's WMAP satellite. The WMAP team combined their information with an earlier analysis of part of the 2dFGRS to conclude that we indeed live in a dark energy-dominated universe. This was dubbed "the breakthrough of the year" in 2003 by Science magazine. Now, the discovery of the cosmic missing link by the 2dFGRS team, almost exactly a year later, crowns the achievements of a decade of painstaking work.

In an interesting twist, clues to the identity of the dark energy could be gleaned by finding baryon features in the evolving galaxy distribution halfway between now and the Big Bang. UK astronomers and their collaborators across the world are now planning large galaxy surveys of very distant galaxies with this aim in mind.

Independent confirmation of the presence of baryon features in the large-scale structure comes from the US-led Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They use a complementary method that does not involve the power spectrum, and study a rare subset of galaxies over a larger volume than the 2dFGRS. Nevertheless, the conclusions are consistent, which is very satisfying.

Professor Michael Strauss from Princeton University, Spokesman for the SDSS collaboration said: "This is wonderful science. The two groups have now independently seen direct evidence for the growth of structure by gravitational instability from the initial fluctuations seen in the cosmic microwave background."


This research was funded in the UK by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC).

A paper describing this result has been submitted to the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS). A meeting to review the successes of 2dF will be held at the RAS on January 13 and 14th (see here for details).

The Royal Astronomical Society is the UK's leading professional body for astronomy & astrophysics, geophysics, solar and solar-terrestrial physics, and planetary sciences. The Society publishes two specialist scientific publications, Monthly Notices of the RAS and Geophysical Journal International, together with a full-colour journal of news and reviews, Astronomy & Geophysics.

The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) is the UK's strategic science investment agency. It funds research, education and public understanding in four broad areas of science - particle physics, astronomy, cosmology and space science. PPARC is government funded and provides research grants and studentships to scientists in British universities, gives researchers access to world-class facilities and funds the UK membership of international bodies such as the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, CERN, the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory. It also contributes money for the UK telescopes overseas on La Palma, Hawaii, Australia and in Chile, the UK Astronomy Technology Centre at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and the MERLIN/VLBI National Facility.


Fred Hoyle coined the term 'big bang' in the 1950s to describe our state of ignorance about why the universe was expanding - it appeared to have started suddenly at some special time in a state of infinite density and temperature. Really, this term should have been withdrawn in the 1980s with the development of the theory of cosmic 'inflation'. This suggests that the expansion of the universe was started by the antigravity properties of vacuum energy - similar to what is seen in the accelerating expansion today, but much stronger. According to this theory, the inflationary period is when subatomic processes may have created the fluctuation to seed structure in the universe. However, the term 'big bang' is still used, for two reasons: we do not yet know if the inflationary theory is true; and even if it is, the universe was still very hot just after inflation finished.


Designed and built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory, the 2dF is one of the world's most complex astronomical instruments, able to capture 400 spectra simultaneously. A robot arm positions up to 400 optical fibres on a field plate, each to within an accuracy of 20 micrometres. Light from up to 400 objects is collected and fed into two spectrographs for analysis. The expansion of the Universe shifts galaxy spectra to longer wavelengths. By measuring this "redshift" in a galaxy's spectrum, the galaxy's distance can be determined.

The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey used the 2dF to cover a total area of about 2,000 square degrees, selected from both northern and southern skies. It used about 250 nights observing time on the 4m-diameter Anglo-Australian Telescope, during 1995-2002. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey is nearly ten times larger than the surveys that preceded it.


Members of the team are based at the following institutions: Anglo-Australian Observatory, Australian National University, California Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, Liverpool John Moores University, University of Cambridge, University of Durham, University of Edinburgh, University of Leeds, University of New South Wales, University of Nottingham, University of Oxford, University of St Andrews Contact names and email addresses are given at

For images, see
For AAT, see

Press OfficerJulia MaddockPPARCTel +44 1793 442094Mobile +44 7901 514 975Email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Dr Shaun ColeInstitute for Computational CosmologyDepartment of PhysicsUniversity of DurhamTel: +44-191-334-3593E-mail: Shaun.Cole<-at-> Dr Will PercivalInstitute for AstronomyUniversity of EdinburghTel +44-131-668-8100Mobile +44-7974564017Email: wjp<-at-> Professor John PeacockInstitute for AstronomyUniversity of EdinburghTel: +44-131-668-8100Mobile +44 7946 273 597E-mail: jap<-at-> Professor Carlos FrenkInstitute for Computational CosmologyPhysics DepartmentDurham UniversityTel +44-191-334-3641Mobile +44 7808 726080E-mail: c.s.frenk<-at-> Dr Matthew Colless, DirectorAnglo-Australian Observatory Will be in the UK. Contact via the RAS on Tel: 020-7734 4582 / 020-7734 3307 In Australia:Dr Warrick Couch, University of New South WalesTel +61-2-9385-4578Mobile +61 413-011-371E-mail: w.couch<-at-> Dr Bruce Peterson, Australian National UniversityTel +61-2-6125-8035E-mail: peterson<-at-> In the USA:Professor Richard EllisCaltech, Pasadena, USADirect line: +1-626-395-2598 or Secretary:+1-626-395-4970Mobile/cell: +1-626-676-5530E-mail: rse<-at-> For more information on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Results: Professor Bob NicholInstitute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG)Mercantile House, Hampshire TerraceUniv. of PortsmouthPortsmouth, PO1 2EGUKTel +44 (0)23 9284 3117Mobile +44 (0)7963792049E-mail: bob.nichol<-at->
Date: 11th January 2005

Issued by Julia Maddock, PPARC Press Officer and Anita Heward, RAS Communications Officer.